(Get Answer) – Teen Pregnancy

Partington, S. N., Steber, D. L., Blair, K. A. and Cisler, R. A. (2009). Second births to teenage mothers: risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 41(2):101–109, doi: 10.1363/4110109. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Parlington et al (2009) examine the likely factors that can be used to predict whether a teenager would experience birth related problems such as low-birth-weight as well as instances of preterm birth. These authors base their study on the finding that cases of preterm and low birth weights are higher among teenagers than in women of age and especially if the teenager is experiencing a second or subsequent birth. To come up with the predictors, the authors of this article reviewed ten years birth certificate records for teenagers who had second births in Milwaukee. From a regression analysis of this data, Parlington et al (2009) identified that poor birth outcomes among teenagers can be predicted it is a second teenage birth. Moreover, this is exacerbated if the teenage mother smokes during pregnancy, if she registered insufficient weight gain during pregnancy, had a black nationality or the gap between the present and previous pregnancy was less than 11/2 years. An age below 16 years, not being married as well as being poor increased the risk of birth related problems. By identifying the factors that lead to negative outcomes during second pregnancy in teenagers, this article paves way for addressing the problem by attending to the predictors. The comprehensive review of the data on teenage pregnancy makes this article reliable and its results can be widely accepted.Whitehead, E. (2008). Exploring relationships in teenage pregnancy. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 14: 292–295. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.In this article, Whitehead (2008) reports findings on how pregnant teenagers relate with the unborn infant’s father. The author explores this relationship by contrasting the relationship between teenage mothers and the child’s father in south-east of UK and those in north-west of UK. In this study, Whitehead (2008) identified that south-east pregnant teens tended to keep their relationship with the baby’s father compared to pregnant teenagers from north-west. In addition, continued relationship between the teenage mother and the father of the child depended on the father’s ability to provide for the mother and the unborn child both of which depended on whether the father was employed or not as well as the education status of the father. It was also clear that most of the fathers were up to 10 years older than the teenage mother. This study is a clear indicator that most teenage girls are impregnated by men who are older them. Nevertheless, these older men are mostly not in a position to provide for the teenage mother due to factors such as unemployment thus breaking the relationship between the child’s mother and father. This article is important in emphasizing the need to avoid teenage pregnancy as this overburdens the teenage mother, more so due to the inability of the father to take care of the child and its mother.Goodman, D. C., Klerman, L. V. Johnson, K. A. Chang, C. and Marth, N. (2007). Geographic access to family planning facilities and the risk of unintended and teenage pregnancy. Maternal Child Health Journal, 11:145–152 Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Goodman et al (2007) wanted to find out whether teenage as well as unintended pregnancies were lower among teenagers who had close geographical proximity to family planning services. To test this hypothesis, the researchers identified teenage births using PRAMS (State Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring Systems) files and teenage births using natality files in Ohio, Washington, Oklahoma and Alabama states. The researchers then determined the distance from the nearest family planning (FP) facility by determining travel time for the subjects. It was noted that majority of the teenagers lived near a FP facility (within 15 minutes) and no teenager was living beyond 30 minutes proximity. Ironically, teenage and unintended pregnancies did not lower with proximity to an FP facility or services. The authors of this article are able to cancel the misconception that closeness to family planning facilities means that teenagers access the FP services. In deed, the article raises serious questions into why teenagers do not seem to acquire FP services, even when they are readily available. The article certainly highlights the need to change tactics in encouraging usage of FP services and facilities among teenagers to avoid unintended and teenage pregnancies.Gaudie, J., Mitrou, F., Lawrence, D., Stanley, F. J. Silburn, S. R. et al. (2010). Antecedents of teenage pregnancy from a 14-year follow-up study using data linkage. BMC Public Health, 10:63. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.In trying to find out the precursors of teenage pregnancy, Gaudie et al (2010) collected data on teenage pregnancies and associated adverse outcomes from a 14-year follow-up. Data for 1374 girls aged between 4 and 16 years regarding their births as well as hospitalizations was collected and teenage pregnancy rates, abortion rates as well as the associated risks in teenage pregnancy were determined statistically. Gaudie et al (2010) noted that among the girls who got pregnant during their teenage years, pregnancy was related to a number of factors. In specific, carers with fewer years of schooling and low income experienced adverse outcomes. Moreover, a teenage mother who was a smoker or who displayed delinquency and aggressiveness were more likely to experience teenage pregnancy. Gaudie et al (2010) are able to link teenage pregnancy and complications thereof with various factors that can be avoided. The fact that teenage pregnancy can be almost predicted/linked to several factors that develop at a tender age implies that the same can be avoided by correcting these factors/behaviors at the tender age.East, P. L., Reyes, B. T. and Horn, E. J. (2007). Association between adolescent pregnancy and a family history of teenage births. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 39(2):108–115, doi: 10.1363/3910807. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Due to paucity of knowledge on whether teenage pregnancy is highly linked to the teenager being in a family where teenage births have been experienced, East, Reyes and Horn (2007) sought to establish this relationship. To accomplish this, the three researchers surveyed 127 adolescent females of both black and Latina origin. On conducting regression analyses, the authors identified that teenage pregnancies were more common among teenage girls living in family with a history of teenage births (close relatives such as mother or sister) compared to families with no such history. If the sister (especially an older sister) had had teenage birth, the teenager’s risk of teenage pregnancy increased, and this was even higher if both the sister and the mother were teenage mothers. This article sheds light into the pattern of teenage pregnancy based on family history. Teenage pregnancy preventive measures can therefore be channeled more into such families. In addition, the authors of this article are able to show that family members can be effective role models in preventing teenage pregnancy. If teens avoid pregnancy, it is almost predictable that their children will less likely become pregnancy during teenage.SummaryThe topic, teen pregnancy, was selected after noticing that teenage pregnancy is an issue that has continued to spread despite enhancement in ways of preventing and reducing teenage pregnancy. It was therefore important to understand some of the reasons behind the persistence of this problem and the problems associated with teenage pregnancy. The selected articles on the topic shed enough light in this topic where teenage pregnancy was found to result to preterm births among other adverse effects. It also came clear that teenage mothers hardly relate well with the unborn child’s father, more so due to mother’s perception of the father’s inability to support them. A significant part of the research associated smoking, delinquency, low socioeconomic status as well as family history of teenage births with teenage pregnancy. From this research, it is evident that the factors that increase risk of teenage pregnancy can be avoided or corrected. Knowledge from this research will no doubt be helpful to me during parenting, as I will keep all the risk factors under control. I will equip my friends and colleagues with this knowledge thus reducing risk of teenage pregnancy in our community. 

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